Quantec's ORION further validates the 3D approach.
How ORION 3D works.   Comparison to 3D E-SCAN.
A slide show explains the importance of
acquiring a True 3D field data set

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Peak 3D
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uranium 3D
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True 3D DC resistivity earth mapping for geoscience and engineering

©  2019 Crone Geophysics & Exploration Ltd. ver 30April2019
E-SCAN is a registered trademark of Crone Geophysics & Exploration Ltd.
                For further explanation and illustrations see the "TECHNICAL BACKUP" link.

True 3D geo-electric models
      "True 3D" refers to a comprehensively hard-data-supported 3D inversion model, whose objectivity is secured provision of a genuinely 3D raw data set, one that is rigidly defined as (1) dense, (2) uniformly distributed, (3) all-directional, (4) consistently over-deep measured data, with inherent characteristics sufficient for the (5) objective recognition and correction (or elimination) of questionable data.

      Using the complete set of appropriately positioned and oriented raw data values, the True 3D process can actively define and constrain every part of the entire 3D earth model, including "uninteresting" background areas. Virtually no earth model aspect is left to the infill interpolation, extrapolation, smoothing or other programmed estimations that most inversion algorithms must employ to ensure a 3D model result through areas represented by sparse or incomplete raw data.
      It follows that, for an all-encompassing (True 3D data-based) survey, there can be no possibility of an initial conceptual error in survey parameterization (pre-survey choice of survey line orientation, depth estimate, model type estimate) because no such pre-survey guesswork is required. No pre-survey parameter selection is ever needed... 3D E-SCAN samples all parameters, every time.

      Non "True 3D", by this definition, would be those "3D-looking" earth models that:

    a) are directly 3D-inverted by a 3D algorithm using non-3D raw data, e.g. sparse, single- or non-directional in orientation, or having insufficiently deep raw data, at least one of which characteristics results from any line-type DC resistivity survey array and almost all EM methods,    or

    b) are cobbled together from 1D profiles or 2D sections, arithmetically merged or graphically stitched, based on the questionable assumption that an objective 3D model can be obtained from some number of adjacent 2D sections or 1D stacks.
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See the complete 3D image sequence. (Click below)
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See the complete 3D image sequence. (Click below)
The text may identify issues that are thought to be important for maintaining a practical working perspective vis-a-vis the subject being discussed.
Model example comparing 3D E-SCAN's true 3D raw field data set to that of a conventional, powerful pole-dipole DC resistivity survey.
The model site has been complicated by adding some topographic issues, and a large airport facility over the buried target bodies.
          See the slideshow above for full context and explanation. Step through the 15 slides at your own pace.
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Example: Securing uninterrupted true 3D data set across the vertical cliff area in this project resulted in no additional costs to the client.
Additional time requirements: zero.
Additional risk to client: zero.
Special planning/equipment: none.
example comment: You might think that you can simply double the size of the measurement dipole to get twice the vertical penetration (before the signal level again becomes unmanageable),- but the lateral setup distance needed by this doubled-everywhere array may far exceed the available space. This bigger array may encounter a steep-terrain boundary limitation, or your survey may have to go past the legal boundary of your property, perhaps requiring you to negotiate the rights to do so.
See the main page item on Rough Terrain.
Secondary concern: a doubled dipole length also diminishes lateral resolution... Caution is required.
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3D E-SCAN's NEW WEBSITE - Last sync: ver 103 on April 25, 2019

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